The Giving Tree

by Shel Silverstein, United States, 1964

"And the boy loved the tree, very much."

Once there was a giving tree who loved a little boy.
And everyday the boy would come to play
Swinging from the branches, sleeping in the shade
Laughing all the summer’s hours away.
And so they love,
Oh, the tree was happy.
Oh, the tree was glad.

But soon the boy grew older and one day he came and said,
"Can you give me some money, tree, to buy something I’ve found?"
"I have no money," said the tree, "Just apples, twigs and leaves."
"But you can take my apples, boy, and sell them in the town."
And so he did and
Oh, the tree was happy.
Oh, the tree was glad.

But soon again the boy came back and he said to the tree,
"I’m now a man and I must have a house that’s all my home."
"I can’t give you a house" he said, "The forest is my house."
"But you may cut my branches off and build yourself a home"
And so he did.
Oh, the tree was happy.
Oh, the tree was glad.

And time went by and the boy came back with sadness in his eyes.
"My life has turned so cold," he says, "and I need sunny days."
"I’ve nothing but my trunk," he says, "But you can cut it down
And build yourself a boat and sail away."
And so he did and
Oh, the tree was happy.
Oh, the tree was glad.

And after years the boy came back, both of them were old.
"I really cannot help you if you ask for another gift."
"I wish that I could give you something. But I have nothing left to give you."
"I’m nothing but an old stump now," said the tree.
"I do not need very much now, just a quiet place to rest,"
The boy whispered, with a weary smile.
"Well", said the tree, "An old stump is still good for that."
"Come, boy", he said, "Sit down, sit down and rest a while."
And so he did and
Oh, the trees was happy.
Oh, the tree was glad.

"I wish that I could give you something."

Churchill Films, 1973

¿No es acaso el árbol un hombre?

"Is this a sad tale? Well, it is sad in the same way that life is depressing. We are all needy, and, if we are lucky and any good, we grow old using others and getting used up. Tears fall in our lives like leaves from a tree. Our finitude is not something to be regretted or despised, however; it is what makes giving (and receiving) possible. The more you blame the boy, the more you have to fault human existence. The more you blame the tree, the more you have to fault the very idea of parenting. Should the tree's giving be contingent on the boy's gratitude? If it were, if fathers and mothers waited on reciprocity before caring for their young, then we would all be doomed." Ben Jackson, linking the story to the human condition and asserting that readers ought to identify with both the boy and the tree.

La Vita è Bella, 1997



1. Walter Gropius, Bauhaus Building, Dessau, Germany, 1925

Bauhaus, Germany, 1919-1933. One of the most influential schools of design. The Bauhaus school was founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar. In spite of its name, and the fact that its founder was an architect, the Bauhaus did not have an architecture department during the first years of its existence. Nonetheless it was founded with the idea of creating a total work of art in which all arts, including architecture would eventually be brought together. The Bauhaus approach became one of the most influential currents in Modernist architecture and modern design. The Bauhaus had a profound influence upon subsequent developments in art, architecture, graphic design, interior design, industrial design, and typography.

Bauhaus' teachers included Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Johannes Itten, Oskar Schlemmer, Josef Albers, László Moholy-Nagy, Marcel Breuer and Gunta Stölzl.

The pedagogical methods of Klee, Kandinsky and Itten had a major impact in the teaching of art and design all over the world throughout the twentieth century. Craft at the Bauhaus was greatly influenced by industrial design and machine aesthetics. There was an emphasis on converting craft to industry through the creation of prototypes for mass production. Bauhaus furniture was perhaps the most successful in this. The tubular chair designed by Marcel Breuer in 1925, for instance, is still in production today.

A most important task of the Bauhaus shool was to rescue all of the arts from the isolation in which each then found itself. "The complete building is the final aim of the visual arts. Their noblest function was once the decoration of buildings. They were inseparable parts of the great art of building. Today, they exist in isolation, from which they can be rescued only through the conscious, co-operative effort of all craftsmen." Gropius, Bauhaus Manifesto, 1919


The Bauhaus was at once school, workshop, studio and laboratory. "Creative freedom was the climate which permeated everything and was imparted to all masters and students. The intimate contact with the present, service to mankind and society, humanism, in a word, is what gave the Bauhaus its vital impulses" (Gropius).


Importantly, as Gropius puts it, "The Bauhaus believes the machine to be our modern medium of design and seeks to come to terms with it." He thus sought to forge a rare, new alliance between art and industry. When the Bauhaus was founded in Weimar in 1919, the artists were committed to re-examine the very basis of art that would, in turn, touch every aspect of life. It was one of the most significant experiments in art in the twentieth century. The Bauhaus movement emerged as architects and artists intended to rebuild war-torn Europe after WWI. The Bauhaus was not just an innovative training center but also a place of production and a chief focus of international debate.
The utopian spirit in post-war Germany gave rise to the belief that the artist could help to bring about new social conditions through the creation of new environments. Gropius wanted to remove the barrier between artists and craftsmen. He also wanted "to create the new building of the future, which will embrace architecture and sculpture and painting in one unity."


The Bauhaus was opened in Weimar in 1919 but relocated to Dessau in 1925 after the leftwing Social Democratic Party, which had financed it, lost control of state schools to nationalists. Dessau was a middle-sized industrial city in central Germany. Here a purpose-designed building was made, a most ambitious project for Gropius, with workshops, a lecture room, a theatre, student accommodation and canteen facilities. The building was designed collaboratively with Gropius and his staff and students.


"The ultimate goal of the Bauhaus is the collective work of art in which no barriers exist between the structural and decorative arts. Artists and architects would work together towards the great goal of the building of the future." Gropius, Bauhaus Manifesto, 1919


History. In 1919 Walter Gropius was appointed to head a new institution called the Bauhaus in Weimar, Germany. The school was founded in a time when Germany's economy was collapsing and the unemployment rates where higher than ever.
In all of its fourteen years of existence the Bauhaus was not only an important art-, design-, and architecture school, for it was also a melting pot of the European modernistic ideas of reforming the epoch.
The Bauhaus would proceed from certain assumptions, including the idea that the new architecture was to be created for workers and that it was to reject all things that were bourgeois.
Dedicated to utopian collectivism, the Bauhaus produced theories calling for the use of concrete, steel, wood, stucco and glass. A building must have a flat roof and a sheer facade, with neither cornices nor eaves. As color was considered to be bourgeois, buildings were white, gray, beige, or black.
In 1924 the Bauhaus school had to move from Weimar to Dessau, since the school in Weimar was broken up by the parliament of the state. This brought the opportunity to build a new school complex (1925-6), designed by Walter Gropius.
Around 1925 mass housing became a great social issue and it was mostly solved by the Bauhaus. By 1932 no other country had built more housing for its working class than Germany. As most of the architects adhered to the principles of the Bauhaus, the result was a classical form of rational social housing with open floor plans, white walls, no drapes, and functional furniture. A new way of life stood out: free of history, improvising, creative, with solidarity, and without reservation or fondness for the present.
Walter Gropius left the school in 1928. He appointed Hannes Meyer to be headmaster. Meyer emphasized the social aspect of the work and promoted the development of affordable furniture, textiles, wallpaper and lamps for blue-collar workers. In 1930 Hannes Meyer was fired because of his increasingly communist political views.
The last headmaster of the Bauhaus was Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. The Bauhaus was closed by the
Nazis in 1933. Many of the former teachers and students of the Bauhaus migrated to the United States, where they were welcomed with open arms. Breuer and Gropius went to Harvard where Gropius was made head of the school of architecture at Harvard. Moholy-Nagy opened the New Bauhaus, which evolved into the Chicago Institute of Design, and Mies van der Rohe, was installed as dean of architecture at the Armour Institute in Chicago.


The Bauhaus history, the idealism and energy invested in it, makes it a most moving place and phenomenon. Rayner Banham describes the Bauhaus at Dessau as a "sacred site." He refers to more than the building itself: its solemn history, the altruism of so many individuals who taught and attended there, and the sum of outstanding artistic achievement in many fields of the arts that has made it an international institution of profound importance (Janet McKenzie).

Legacy. The Bauhaus has firmly established industrial design. It stripped away unuseful the decoration and left clean the lines of function, which was the primary concern, while removing the past was no more than a secondary consequence. The Bauhaus has become the symbol of modern design and it did achieve many of Gropius's goals. It left a legacy for visual communication programs, art and design schools to follow. Many of such schools still use the courses developed at the Bauhaus.

The Words of Walter Gropius

Bauhaus Manifesto and Program, 1919. The ultimate aim of all creative activity is a building! The decoration of buildings was once the noblest function of fine arts, and fine arts were indispensable to great architecture. Today they exist in complacent isolation, and can only be rescued by the conscious co-operation and collaboration of all craftsmen. Architects, painters, and sculptors must once again come to know and comprehend the composite character of a building, both as an entity and in terms of its various parts. Then their work will be filled with that true architectonic spirit which, as "salon art", it has lost.
The old art schools were unable to produce this unity; and how, indeed, should they have done so, since art cannot be taught? Schools must return to the workshop. The world of the pattern-designer and applied artist, consisting only of drawing and painting must become once again a world in which things are built. If the young person who rejoices in creative activity now begins his career as in the older days by learning a craft, then the unproductive "artist" will no longer be condemned to inadequate artistry, for his skills will be preserved for the crafts in which he can achieve great things.
Architects, painters, sculptors, we must all return to crafts! For there is no such thing as "professional art". There is no essential difference between the artist and the craftsman. The artist is an exalted craftsman. By the grace of Heaven and in rare moments of inspiration which transcend the will, art may unconsciously blossom from the labour of his hand, but a base in handicrafts is essential to every artist. It is there that the original source of creativity lies.
Let us therefore create a new guild of craftsmen without the class-distinctions that raise an arrogant barrier between craftsmen and artists! Let us desire, conceive, and create the new building of the future together. It will combine architecture, sculpture, and painting in a single form, and will one day rise towards the heavens from the hands of a million workers as the crystalline symbol of a new and coming faith.

"The Role of the Architect in Modern Society," address given at Columbia University, March 1961. The Bauhaus' novel method of education in design has been widely misunderstood and misinterpreted. The present generation is inclined to think of it as a rigid stylistic dogma of yesterday whose usefulness has come to an end because its ideological and technical premises are now outdated. This view confuses a method of approach with the practical results obtained by it at a particular period of its application. The Bauhaus was not concerned with the formulation of timebound, stylistic concepts, and its technical methods were not ends in themselves. It was created to show how a multitude of individuals, willing to work concertedly but without losing their identity, could evolve a kinship of expression in their response to the challenges of the day. Its aim was to give a basic demonstration of how to maintain unity in diversity, and it did this with the materials, techniques, and form concepts germane to its time. It was this method of approach that was revolutionary.

Bauhaus was founded by Walther Gropius in Weimar in the year 1919 as an art, design and architecture school. The goal of Bauhaus was to bring together art, handcrafts and architecture into one single synthesis of the arts. This guideline is rather strongly oriented on the arts and crafts movement – however, Bauhaus opened itself for new technological possibilities, so that the way to industrial design was smoothed. These artistic ambitions affected interpersonal relationships as well, so that no distinction was made any longer between the artist and the craftsman. Gropius’ goal was, "The final goal for all artistic activity is architecture! [...] Architects, sculptors, painters, we must all go back to handwork! [...] The artist is an intensification of the craftsman," which he proclaimed in the Bauhaus manifesto. This goal was also continued by his successors Hannes Meyer and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe after Bauhaus moved to Dessau and Berlin (which had to be done because of political reasons). Particularly under the leadership of van der Rohe, Bauhaus became an architectural school with a strong emphasis on the technical. Formally, Bauhaus stood for simple and clear lines. Under the influence of Moholy- Nagy, photography was also taken up into the Bauhaus program. In 1932, Bauhaus was forced to close; Mies van der Rohe opened it again briefly, but disbanded it shortly thereafter in 1933. Moholy- Nagy founded “the new Bauhaus” in Chicago in 1937. Important representatives of Bauhaus are Johannes Itten, Gerhard Marcks, Lyonel Feininger, Georg Muche, Paul Klee, Oskar Schlemmer, Wassily Kandinsky, Josef Albers and László Moholy-Nagy. Related artists: Josef Albers, Willi Baumeister, Herbert Bayer, Max Bill, Heinrich Campendonk, Walter Dexel, Lyonel Feininger, Carl Grossberg, Albert Hennig, Auguste Herbin, Hannah Höch, Ida Kerkovius, Hans Reichel, Lothar Schreyer, Kurt Schwitters, and William Wauer (Art Directory).

The Words of Paul Klee

"Creative Credo," 1920, VII. Art is a simile of the Creation. Each work of art is an example, just as the terrestrial is an example of the cosmic.
The release of elements, their grouping into complex subdivisions, the dismemberment of the object and its reconstruction into a whole, the pictorial polyphony, the achievement of stability through an equilibrium of movement, all these are difficult questions of form, crucial for formal wisdom, but not yet art in the highest circle. In the highest circle an ultimate mystery lurks behind the mystery, and the wretched light of the intellect is of no avail. One may still speak reasonably of the salutary effects of art. We may say that fantasy, inspired by instinctual stimuli, creates illusory states which somehow encourage or stimulate us more than the familiar natural known supernatural states, that its symbols bring comfort to the mind, by making it realize that it is not confined to earthly potentialities, however great they may become in the future; that ethical gravity holds sway side by side with impish laughter at doctors and parsons.
But, in the long run, even enhanced reality proves inadequate.
Art plays an unknowing game with ultimate things, and yet achieves them!
Cheer up! Value such country outings, which let you have a new point of view for once as well as a change of air, and transport you to a world which, by diverting you, strengthens you for the inevitable returns to the greyness of the working day. More than that, they help you to slough off your earthly skin, to fancy for a moment thta you are God; to look forward to new holidays, when the soul goes to a banquet in order to nourish its starved nerves, and to fill its languishing blood vessels with new sap.
Let yourself be carried on the invigorating sea, on a broad river or an enchanting brook, such as that of the richly diversified, aphoristic graphic art.

Bauhaus archiv
Studio International
White Design
Creadores suizos y alemanes


The Machine Age: Modern Architecture

Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer, Fagus Factory, Elfeld, Germany, 1911-13. The animated fluctuation in height, the change between horizontal structure and vertical rhythms, heavy closed volumes and light dissolved fabrics, are indicators of an approach that deliberately utilized contrasts while arriving at a harmony of opposites in a manner best expressed as a pictorial or visual structure created from the perspective of the railroad tracks (Annemarie Jaeggi, Fagus: Industrial Culture from Werkbund to Bauhaus, New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2000).

Machine Aesthetic. Architecture that suggests something machine-made, acknowledging industrialization and mass-production. It is inspaired by demands for honesty and truth in architecture, particularly in its structure.

Modern Design and Machine Aesthetic. Coupled with an influx of avant-garde art, the machine challenged design in a period of experimentation and invention. Electricity powered machines in the home, automobiles changed the shapes of cities and homes, radio and cinema redefined leisure, and telephones closed the distances between people.

The machine was valued for its service. Its aesthetic was promoted by those who saw a beauty in the machine--beauty in appearance and function. The machine aesthetic was assumed by all sorts of objects.

Gropius champions what he calls Rationalization, arguing that "the vagaries of mere architectural caprice" are to be replaced by "the dictates of structural logic."

In the rational normative, all design decisions are based on function and utility. Subjectivity, individualization, and the artist architect give way to objectivity and standardization.

Functionalism opposes Art Deco. The prevalent opinion is that an object's form and appearance should be determined by its purposes. Modern style becomes thus simple, practical, convenient, economic and sanitary.

Last but not least, Le Corbusier understands the house as "a machine for living in."


Hannah Arendt

"This is the precept by which I have lived: Prepare for the worst; expect the best; and take what comes."

Hannah Arendt (Hanover, 1906 - New York, 1975) was one of the most influential historians and political philosophers of the twentieth century. Born into a German-Jewish family, she was forced to leave Germany in 1933 and lived in Paris for the next eight years, working for a number of Jewish refugee organisations. Between 1937 and 1950, Arendt was a stateless person. In 1941 she immigrated to the United States and soon became part of a lively intellectual circle in New York. She held a number of academic positions at various American universities until her death in 1975. She is best known for two works that had a major impact both within and outside the academic community. The first, The Origins of Totalitarianism, published in 1951, was a study of the Nazi and Stalinist regimes that generated a wide-ranging debate on the nature and historical antecedents of the totalitarian phenomenon. The second, The Human Condition, published in 1958, was an original philosophical study that investigated the fundamental categories of the vita activa (labor, work, action). In addition to these two important works, Arendt published a number of influential essays on topics such as the nature of revolution, freedom, authority, tradition and the modern age. At the time of her death in 1975, she had completed the first two volumes of her last major philosophical work, The Life of the Mind, which examined the three fundamental faculties of the vita contemplativa (thinking, willing, judging). Her studies are of great importance for the theory and analysis of totalitarianism and the nature and origins of political violence. In 1975 she was awarded the Sonning Prize by the Danish government for her contributions to European civilization.

The Origins of Totalitarianism. No book was more resonant or impressive in tracing the steps toward the distinctive twentieth-century tyrannies of Hitler and Stalin, or in measuring how grievously wounded Western civilization and the human status itself had become. She demonstrated how embedded racism was in Central and Western European societies by the end of the nineteenth century, and how imperialism experimented with the possibilities of unspeakable cruelty and mass murder. The third section of her book exposed the operations of "radical evil," arguing that the huge number of prisoners in the death camps marked a horrifying discontinuity in European history itself. Totalitarianism put into practice what had been imagined only in the medieval depictions of hell. In the 1950s, The Origins of Totalitarianism engendered much doubt, especially by drawing parallels between Nazi Germany and Stalinist Russia (despite their obvious ideological conflicts and their savage warfare from 1941 to 1945). The parallelism continues to stir skepticism in some readers, especially because of the unavailability and unfamiliarity of Russian sources when the book was researched and written. But Arendt's emphasis on the plight of the Jews amid the decline of Enlightenment ideals of human rights, and her insistence that the Third Reich was conducting two wars—one against the Allies, the other against the Jewish people—have become commonplaces of Jewish historiography. Much of her book is stunningly original, and virtually every paragraph is ablaze with insight. More than any other scholar, Arendt made meaningful and provocative the idea of "totalitarianism" as a new form of autocracy,  springing from subterranean sources within Western society, but pushing to unprecedented extremes murderous fantasies of domination and revenge (Paula Hyman and Deborah Dash Moore, 1997).


By its very nature the beautiful is isolated from everything else. From beauty no road leads to reality.

In order to go on living one must try to escape the death involved in perfectionism.

Nothing we use or hear or touch can be expressed in words that equal what is given by the senses.

Action without a name, a who attached to it, is meaningless.

The most radical revolutionary will become a conservative the day after the revolution.

Only crime and the criminal, it is true, confront us with the perplexity of radical evil; but only the hypocrite is really rotten to the core.

The aim of totalitarian education has never been to instill convictions but to destroy the capacity to form any.

Storytelling reveals meaning without committing the error of defining it.

Action, as distinguished from fabrication, is never possible in isolation; to be isolated is to be deprived of the capacity to act. The Human Condition

Exasperation with the threefold frustration of action —the unpredictability of its outcome, the irreversibility of the process, and the anonymity of its authors— is almost as old as recorded history. It has always been a great temptation, for men of action no less than for men of thought, to find a substitute for action in the hope that the realm of human affairs may escape the haphazardness and moral irresponsibility inherent in a plurality of agents. Ibid.

Caution in handling generally accepted opinions that claim to explain whole trends of history is especially important for the historian of modern times, because the last century has produced an abundance of ideologies that pretend to be keys to history but are actually nothing but desperate efforts to escape responsibility.

Education is the point at which we decide whether we love the world enough to assume responsibility for it, and by the same token save it from that ruin which except for renewal, except for the coming of the new and the young, would be inevitable. And education, too, is where we decide whether we love our children enough not to expel them from our world and leave them to their own devices, nor to strike from their hands their chance of undertaking something new, something unforeseen by us, but to prepare them in advance for the task of renewing a common world.

The sad truth is that most evil is done by people who never make up their minds to be good or evil.

Por el agua suave en movimiento,
que vence a la dura piedra con el tiempo,
lo comprendes, los fuertes sucumben.

Bertold Brecht

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
European Graduate School
Internet Encyclopaedia of Philosophy
The Origins of Totalitarianism, 1958
Reflections of Violence


Art Deco

Louis Hippolyte Boileau, Pomone Pavilion for Bon Marché, Paris 1925 Exhibition (Art Deco 1910-1939, ed. Charlotte Benton, Tim Benton and Chislaine Wood).

Art Deco. Sexy, modern, and unabashedly consumer-oriented, Art Deco was a new kind of style, flourishing at a time of rapid technological change and social upheaval. Lacking the philosophical basis of other European design movements, Deco borrowed motifs from numerous sources--Japan, Africa, ancient Egyptian and Mayan cultures, avant-garde European art--simply to create novel visual effects. This popular style encompasses industrial artifacts (the Hindenburg blimp, the Burlington Zephyr locomotive), as well as architecture, furniture, accessories, fashion, jewelry, typography and poster design. The Deco label may be appropriate to virtually any object that portrays the effects of technology or employs color, luxury materials or artificial light in striking ways. It does seem a stretch to include Man Ray's photographs, Sonia Delaunay's textiles and the movie King Kong in the Deco pantheon —Cathy Curtis

The Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes (International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Arts) was a World's fair held in Paris, France from April to October 1925. Photographs. The term Art Deco was derived by shortening the words Arts Décoratifs in the title of this exposition.[1] Artistic creation in the années folles in France is marked by this event, when on this occasion many ideas of the international avant-garde in the fields of architecture and applied arts were brought together. This major event of the 20s was located between the esplanade of Les Invalides and the entrances of the Grand Palais and Petit Palais. It received 4,000 guests at the inauguration on April 28, and thousands of visitors each of the following days.

This exhibition generated the term Art Deco to describe designs in terms of a broad decoratively "modern" style, characterized by a streamlined classicism and facetted, crystalline structures, embellished with decorative references to sleek machinery, and recurrent motifs of stylized fountains,[2] gazelles,[3] lightning flashes, "Aztec" motifs and similar repertory, derived in part from Decorative Cubism.

The central body of exhibits seemed to present the fashionable products of the luxury market, a signal that, after the disasters of World War I, Paris still reigned supreme in the arts of design. At the same time, other examples such as the Esprit Nouveau pavilion and the Soviet pavilion were distinctly not decorative,[4] they contained furnishings and paintings but these works, including the pavilions, were spare and modern. The modern architecture of Le Corbusier and Konstantin Melnikov attracted both criticism and admiration for its lack of ornamentation. Criticism focused on the 'nakedness' of these structures,[5] compared to other pavilions at the exhibition, such as the Pavilion of the Collector by the ébéniste-decorator Émile-Jacques Ruhlmann. These modernist works were integral projects of their own specific movements, and the term Art Deco is used elsewhere, and for other works at the exposition with more accuracy.

Le Corbusier's Esprit Nouveau pavilion attracted attention for reasons in addition to its modernism, such as his vast theoretical project that the pavilion embodied. L'Esprit Nouveau was the name of the Rive Gauche journal in which Le Corbusier first published excerpts of his book Vers une architecture,[6] and within this pavilion he exhibited his Plan Voisin for Paris. The Plan Voisin, named for aviation pioneer Gabriel Voisin,[4] was a series of identical 200 meter tall skyscrapers and lower rectangular apartments, that would replace a large section of central Paris in the Rive Droite.[7] Although this was never built, the pavilion was and represented a single modular apartment within the broader urban theoretical project.[8]

Soviet pavilion. Notable examples of Russian constructivism were the Alexander Rodchenko designed worker's club, and Konstantin Melnikov designed Soviet pavilion.[9] Vadim Meller was awarded a gold medal for his scenic design. Student work from Vkhutemas won several prizes,[10] and Melnikov's pavilion won the Grand Prix.[5]

Due to continued national tensions after the first world war, Germany was not invited. Austria however contributed Frederick Kiesler's City in Space exhibit to house the Viennese documentation, this exhibit was commissioned by Josef Hoffman.[10]

Polish graphic arts were also successfully represented. Tadeusz Gronowski won the Grand Prix in that category. Danish architect and designer Arne Jacobsen, still a student, won a silver medal for a chair design.[11]

Among the 15,000 exhibitors the sculptor and architect Ivan Meštrović was awarded a Grand Prix for The Racic Mausoleum in Cavtat.

1. Theodore Menten, The Art Deco Style in Household Objects, Architecture, Sculpture, Graphics, Jewelry, Courier Dover, 1972
2. René Lalique's crystal tower fountain was a prominent set-piece of the Exposition.
3. The Exposition poster, by Robert Bonfils, imitating the look of a woodblock print, featured a modern athletic nymph and a racing gazelle.
4. Harry Francis Mallgrave, Modern Architectural Theory: A Historical Survey, 1673-1968, Cambridge University Press, 2005, page 258, ISBN 0521793068
5. Catherine Cooke, Russian Avant-Garde: Theories of Art, Architecture, and the City, Academy Editions, 1995, Page 143.
6. Hanno-Walter Kruft, A History of Architectural Theory: From Vitruvius to the Present, Princeton Architectural Press, 1994, Page 397
7. Anthony Sutcliffe, Paris: An Architectural History, Yale University Press, 1993, Page 143
8. Christopher Green, Art in France, 1900-1940, Yale University Press, 2000
9. MoMA | exhibitions | Rodchenko | Worker's Club 1925
10. Penelope Curtis, Sculpture 1900-1945: After Rodin, Oxford University Press, 1999.
11. "Arne Jacobsen". Design Museum. Retrieved 2010-01-01.